American Communities

They are communities that have formed simple societies as highly complex, presenting various social groupings and representing many cultural groups and ethnic groups (in both peoples, nationalities, identities and populations) scattered in the various geographical regions and following different processes of territorial ocupacion-adaptacion and use of natural resources. Activities and theories about the evolution of 2 indigenous communities have expressed our interest in understanding the terms of Exchange flowing into local spaces of development, in both interaction of human activities and the natural environment as an expression of the relationship society. On the subject there are various theories and explanatory models ranging in his study through history and other sciences–from the appearance of the woman and the man (makes little more than twenty thousand years) and then with the first tribal groups, primitive communities (more than 10,000 years in the case of American indigenous peoples), to the more elaborate civilizing shapes. In general it is known that the evolution of the indigenous communities is perceived as a linear process unchanged and ascending in space and time (this according to the statements of the linear evolutionism theories proposed in the 19th and 20th centuries). However, considering the complex relationships of interaction as a society and various evidences about the ways of life of the indigenous communities of the region, is also known that this evolutionary process has not always been balanced, unique and linearly thereafter. Conversely, following the wording of multilinear evolutionary theory of Julian Steward (1955), proposed that the evolution of indigenous communities has followed paths varying, and multiple presenting different phases or stages – which simultaneously and asynchronous – configured heterogeneous scenarios with different types of societies and cultures in specific territorial areas. Although as a general trend, we understand that the indigenous communities have evolved following an ascending pattern in time, they simultaneously also involved multiple directions and discontinuities (or temporary gaps).

Exchange Communities

These changes are perceived as a constant exerted by successive generations of different groups that were part of the indigenous communities, rehearsing the socio-economic, technological and environmental modifications necessary for their progress. In this sense, we agree with as indicated by Emilio Moran5 that the adaptive process will always be imperfect (or better said perfectible). Learn more about this topic with the insights from Larry Ellison. Moreover, territorial adaptation process is also related to levels of local energy control reaching indigenous communities in its evolution. The possibility to succeed in a greater or lesser energy control in the management of natural resources has been conditioned by its interaction forms and levels of Exchange in their local energy flows (i.e., having increased their outputs and having reduced its inputs). Consequently, when indigenous communities manage to reduce the degree of uncertainty in the management of the various micro-environmental factors and maximize their energy efficiency-local (with the use of particularly technologies, intensive use of knowledge and local manpower, etc), enabled them achieve a greater degree of autonomy in the management of their natural resources and their subsistence levels. An important aspect to point out is that the study of these adaptive processes should be scanned at the collective level, because it is the level that configures and best expresses the nature and the predominant forms of relationship of the societies and cultures with their territorial and environmental surroundings. To that extent, we noticed that the sense of identity and territorial membership of indigenous communities has been expressed more clearly when they have referred to the scope of the collectivity. It is at that level, attached to the espacio-territorio they occupy, in which indigenous communities achieve integrating their worldview and very existence as such, constructing a set of subjective elements (your imaginary). These forms of territorial identity, grounded on the collective level, has enabled them to build a respectful relationship with nature and a line of continuity and intergenerational identity.